How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?

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  1. #1
    Avatar de Hunter-Gatherer
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    How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?


    POVERTY is easy to spot but hard to define. America sets its poverty line at $11,490 of income per year for a one-person household, or just over $30 a day. Any income below that amount is judged inadequate for the provision of fundamental wants. Other rich countries set their poverty lines in relative terms, so an increase in the incomes of top earners results in more poverty if everything else is held constant. The threshold for dire poverty in developing countries is set much lower, at $1.25 a day of consumption (rather than income). This figure is arrived at by averaging the poverty lines in the 15 poorest countries, not because $1.26 spells comfort. This is the yardstick by which poverty reduction in poor countries is measured. Remarkably, this poverty rate has halved worldwide, from 43% in 1990 to 21% in 2010.

    How did this happen? Presidents and prime ministers in the West have made grandiloquent speeches about making poverty history for fifty years. In 2000 the United Nations announced a series of eight Millenium Development Goals to reduce poverty, improve health and so on. The impact of such initiatives has been marginal at best.

    Almost all of the fall in the poverty rate should be attributed to economic growth. Fast-growing economies in the developing world have done most of the work. Between 1981 and 2001 China lifted 680m people out of poverty. Since 2000, the acceleration of growth in developing countries has cut the numbers in extreme poverty outside China by 280m. How that growth is distributed matters too. In a country where income inequality is high, each percentage point of GDP growth will do less work than the same growth would in a more equal place.

    This is great news. Unfortunately, taking the remaining billion people above the threshold will be harder. The next country that should move millions of people across the line will be India, whose economy has slowed. Then it will be the turn of sub-Saharan Africa. By 2030 two-thirds of the poorest will be in fragile states like Congo and Somalia, where they will be hard for domestic governments or foreign agencies to help. Still, shifting people above the threshold that marks dire poverty has begun to look achievable within a generation.
    Fuente: http://www.economist.com/blogs/econo.../tr/ee/poverty

    IN HIS inaugural address in 1949 Harry Truman said that “more than half the people in the world are living in conditions approaching misery. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and skill to relieve the suffering of those people.” It has taken much longer than Truman hoped, but the world has lately been making extraordinary progress in lifting people out of extreme poverty. Between 1990 and 2010, their number fell by half as a share of the total population in developing countries, from 43% to 21%—a reduction of almost 1 billion people.

    Now the world has a serious chance to redeem Truman’s pledge to lift the least fortunate. Of the 7 billion people alive on the planet, 1.1 billion subsist below the internationally accepted extreme-poverty line of $1.25 a day. Starting this week and continuing over the next year or so, the UN’s usual Who’s Who of politicians and officials from governments and international agencies will meet to draw up a new list of targets to replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which were set in September 2000 and expire in 2015. Governments should adopt as their main new goal the aim of reducing by another billion the number of people in extreme poverty by 2030.

    Take a bow, capitalism
    Nobody in the developed world comes remotely close to the poverty level that $1.25 a day represents. America’s poverty line is $63 a day for a family of four. In the richer parts of the emerging world $4 a day is the poverty barrier. But poverty’s scourge is fiercest below $1.25 (the average of the 15 poorest countries’ own poverty lines, measured in 2005 dollars and adjusted for differences in purchasing power): people below that level live lives that are poor, nasty, brutish and short. They lack not just education, health care, proper clothing and shelter—which most people in most of the world take for granted—but even enough food for physical and mental health. Raising people above that level of wretchedness is not a sufficient ambition for a prosperous planet, but it is a necessary one.

    The world’s achievement in the field of poverty reduction is, by almost any measure, impressive. Although many of the original MDGs—such as cutting maternal mortality by three-quarters and child mortality by two-thirds—will not be met, the aim of halving global poverty between 1990 and 2015 was achieved five years early.

    The MDGs may have helped marginally, by creating a yardstick for measuring progress, and by focusing minds on the evil of poverty. Most of the credit, however, must go to capitalism and free trade, for they enable economies to grow—and it was growth, principally, that has eased destitution.

    Poverty rates started to collapse towards the end of the 20th century largely because developing-country growth accelerated, from an average annual rate of 4.3% in 1960-2000 to 6% in 2000-10. Around two-thirds of poverty reduction within a country comes from growth. Greater equality also helps, contributing the other third. A 1% increase in incomes in the most unequal countries produces a mere 0.6% reduction in poverty; in the most equal countries, it yields a 4.3% cut.

    China (which has never shown any interest in MDGs) is responsible for three-quarters of the achievement. Its economy has been growing so fast that, even though inequality is rising fast, extreme poverty is disappearing. China pulled 680m people out of misery in 1981-2010, and reduced its extreme-poverty rate from 84% in 1980 to 10% now.

    That is one reason why (as the briefing explains) it will be harder to take a billion more people out of extreme poverty in the next 20 years than it was to take almost a billion out in the past 20. Poorer governance in India and Africa, the next two targets, means that China’s experience is unlikely to be swiftly replicated there. Another reason is that the bare achievement of pulling people over the $1.25-a-day line has been relatively easy in the past few years because so many people were just below it. When growth makes them even slightly better off, it hauls them over the line. With fewer people just below the official misery limit, it will be more difficult to push large numbers over it.

    So caution is justified, but the goal can still be achieved. If developing countries maintain the impressive growth they have managed since 2000; if the poorest countries are not left behind by faster-growing middle-income ones; and if inequality does not widen so that the rich lap up all the cream of growth—then developing countries would cut extreme poverty from 16% of their populations now to 3% by 2030. That would reduce the absolute numbers by 1 billion. If growth is a little faster and income more equal, extreme poverty could fall to just 1.5%—as near to zero as is realistically possible. The number of the destitute would then be about 100m, most of them in intractable countries in Africa. Misery’s billions would be consigned to the annals of history.

    Markets v misery
    That is a lot of ifs. But making those things happen is not as difficult as cynics profess. The world now knows how to reduce poverty. A lot of targeted policies—basic social safety nets and cash-transfer schemes, such as Brazil’s Bolsa Família—help. So does binning policies like fuel subsidies to Indonesia’s middle class and China’s hukou household-registration system (see article) that boost inequality. But the biggest poverty-reduction measure of all is liberalising markets to let poor people get richer. That means freeing trade between countries (Africa is still cruelly punished by tariffs) and within them (China’s real great leap forward occurred because it allowed private business to grow). Both India and Africa are crowded with monopolies and restrictive practices.

    Many Westerners have reacted to recession by seeking to constrain markets and roll globalisation back in their own countries, and they want to export these ideas to the developing world, too. It does not need such advice. It is doing quite nicely, largely thanks to the same economic principles that helped the developed world grow rich and could pull the poorest of the poor out of destitution.
    Fuente: http://www.economist.com/news/leader...rld-should-aim




    Por lo visto el gran desafio esta en el Africa Subsahariana, donde las estimaciones para el 2030 no son nada prometedoras. Hubiera estado bueno que pongan algo de LATM tambien, pero me parecio interesante.


    PD: Que negrada la poverty line de USA. (Aunque hay que tener en cuenta algunas cuestiones de salud y educación, pero me sigue pareciendo MUY ALTA.)
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    Última edición por MAURYYY : 08-06-13 el 11:33 AM
    Citar Mensaje original enviado por FranCoLaKD Ver Mensaje
    G-Dogg pretendes que no hagan informes del ultimo PROCER NACIONAL que tuvimos? Trasciende los partidos politicos el compañero NESTOR.
    Citar Mensaje original enviado por Grendi Ver Mensaje
    si te fijas bien en las facciones de esa gente, podes ver el legado del simio

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  3. #2
    Avatar de -capitan-
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    Re: How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?

    Y te vas a la puta que te pario con el ingles. Es un foro en castellano, si "por lo menos" fuera una noticia de jueguitos...por lo menos.
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    Citar Mensaje original enviado por -Rodri- Ver Mensaje
    Te propongo hacer la revolución con la moto de 20 lucas verdes que te querías comprar. Recreamos el viaje del che si querés, hacemos un nuevo Diarios de Motocicleta.

  4. #3
    Avatar de Hunter-Gatherer
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    Re: How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?

    Citar Mensaje original enviado por -capitan- Ver Mensaje
    Y te vas a la puta que te pario con el ingles. Es un foro en castellano, si "por lo menos" fuera una noticia de jueguitos...por lo menos.
    Da, no hay que tener un super ingles para leer esa nota, siempre se postean cosas en ingles (capaz no noticias directamente).

    Tranquilamente podes usar un traductor, aunque no sea lo ideal, pero algo vas a poder sacar.
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    Citar Mensaje original enviado por FranCoLaKD Ver Mensaje
    G-Dogg pretendes que no hagan informes del ultimo PROCER NACIONAL que tuvimos? Trasciende los partidos politicos el compañero NESTOR.
    Citar Mensaje original enviado por Grendi Ver Mensaje
    si te fijas bien en las facciones de esa gente, podes ver el legado del simio

  5. #4
    Avatar de G-Dogg
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    Re: How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?

    Citar Mensaje original enviado por MAURYYY Ver Mensaje
    Hubiera estado bueno que pongan algo de LATM tambien, pero me parecio interesante.
    Si hubieran puesto algo de Latinoamérica habríamos contribuído a truchear el promedio en algunos decimales porque está todo calculado en dólares paridad de poder adquisitivo, que en nuestro caso resulta de la inflación del Indec. Igual eso ya lo hizo la Cepal.
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    Citar Mensaje original enviado por Uncle Roland
    los judíos askenazíes -de donde salieron los principales militantes sionistas- salieron del reino kázaro, que existió entre los siglos VIII y IX
    Citar Mensaje original enviado por Uncle Roland
    El primero [de los versos], es la existencia de los jázaros, cuando hace años que está probado que no existieron:

    http://hnn.us/article/38677

  6. #5
    CROTOCULTURA Avatar de Gerli
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    Re: How did the global poverty rate halve in 20 years?

    Citar Mensaje original enviado por -capitan- Ver Mensaje
    Y te vas a la puta que te pario con el ingles. Es un foro en castellano, si "por lo menos" fuera una noticia de jueguitos...por lo menos.
    Jodete por no estudiar...
    Por cierto, 1.26 dólares al cambio oficial son $6.93.... si vivis con menos de eso sos pobre, el INDEC tenia razón!!!11
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