Respecto del cáncer y la nutrición
"Every year, cancer is diagnosed in 14.1 million people worldwide, and 8.2 million people die from this disease. These figures represent 13% of all deaths around the world, and malignant tumors are one of the main causes of death in industrialized countries . The prognosis for the future is even worse, with a 70% increase in cancer incidence expected, meaning 22 million new cases will be diagnosed every year over the next twenty years . The most common types of cancer for men are lung, prostate, and colorectal cancer (CRC), while women mostly suffer from breast, colorectal, and lung cancer .
Cancer is known to be a multifactorial disease with many external risk factors that need to be considered, especially lifestyle factors. In recent years, nutrition has been highlighted as a key risk factor, and is now considered to be responsible for 30% of all cancer cases in industrialized countries . Different nutritional aspects have been implicated in the stimulation of a large number of cancers. Alcohol is known for its connection to liver cancer, but high body mass index (BMI) and obesity also play a major role in cancer development [3-5]. While these factors primarily affect industrialized countries, cancer in developing countries is often linked to micronutrient deficiencies .
Other cancer risk factors include food that has been prepared at high temperatures, high fat consumption, and the excessive usage of salt. Current World Health Organization (WHO) reports also support the hypothesis that above all, red and processed meats are important carcinogens, partly due to nitrites contained in these foods, along with the smoking process. In contrast to this finding, other nutrition aspects (ie, high intake of fiber, and fruit and vegetables) have a cancer protective effect [7-10].
Studies indicate that cancer is low in vegan populations [11,12], but little data exists regarding the effect of a plant-based diet on the progression of diagnosed cancer. However, evidence suggests that a vegetarian or vegan diet provides many other health benefits, such as lower incidence of high BMIs, obesity, and cardiovascular disease [11,12]. The Second World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute of Cancer recommends a mostly plant-based diet and a reduction of red and processed meat in its Research Export Report of 2008 , which is also supported by current reports issued by the WHO in 2015 . However, data referring to the therapeutic setting (ie, patients diagnosed with cancer) are still missing. It is of great scientific interest to test the influence of different dietary patterns on the progression of cancer and cancer survival."